Spectacular Benefits of Grooming Your Pets

Keeps the Skin and Fur Free from Infection

Regular grooming of your pet is necessary. Especially, if the pet likes to spend time in the park and roll around on the mud. The skin and the fur of your pet can get exposed to the risk of dirt allergies along with several other infections. A dirty fur and skin will invite fleas and other forms of parasites which will weaken your pet, gradually. Also it makes them become smelly. Making them take a bath, on a regular basis, will help them get rid of this problems. Bathe your pet with pH-balanced shampoos in order to disinfect their skin.

Grooming helps them to Relax

Regular grooming sessions help your pet to learn to relax. Bathing or clipping the nails of a nervous dog is very challenging. For that reason regular grooming is necessary. When you are using a nail clipper or a de-shedding tool it is required that your pet stay calm. Using grooming tools like the toenail clippers is a bit risky if your dog is restless and anxious. Regular clipping will make him/her understand that it is a necessary step. Use styptic powder in case he/she bleeds whilst you clip the toe nails. It helps your pet to stay safe and it reduces the risk of injury.

Reduces Chances of Allergies

Well groomed cats and dogs are much less prone to allergies. Try and adopt a holistic pet grooming solution in order to make sure that your dog and cat is free from any sort of risk. For example, bathing alone does not necessarily solve the problem. You should use Otic solution along with forceps and gauze to make sure that your dog’s ears are free from any sort of flea and infections.

Grooming at regular intervals also helps you to combat pollen allergies and also ragweed allergies in dogs. Pets that play outside attract such allergies to a large extent. These kinds of allergens get deposited in different parts of your home, like the floor, sofa and the carpet. So, along with grooming, if you regularly clean your house, then the chances of such allergies reduces.

Perfectly Trimmed Fur

Over trimming of fur might also expose your pets’ skin to infection, injuries and burn from the sun. That is why professional grooming services will guide you to understand the exact length your dog’s fur needs to be so that it does not expose the skin and yet helps it stay healthy and clean. Use de-shedding tools to brush your pets’ fur in order to get rid of all the loose fur.

Source by Holly Gough

History And Background Of Betta Fish

Historically speaking, Betta Fish are said to have gotten their name from an ancient clan of Asian warriors called the “Bettah.” They were given these warriors’ names because about 150 years ago people enjoyed participating in a popular sport that involved the fighting of two of these warrior fish. (In fact, the sport was so popular that it was regulated – and taxed – by the King of Siam!)

One interesting note about Betta fish fighting is that, unlike cock or dog fighting in the west, at Siamese fighting fish tournaments, the actual fight was more to test the bravery of the fish, rather than a fight to see how much damage would be inflicted, or a death match.

Spectators bet on how long a particular fish would fight, and which one would give up first. (In fact, most fish would only fight once or twice, and then live out the remainder of their lives being pampered and used for breeding.)

Natural Habitat

A Betta fish’s natural habitat is in shallow, tropical water. This is because they need to be able to surface frequently, in order to breathe air. They can be found in nature in rice paddies, drainage ditches, slow moving streams and fresh water ponds. Betta fish have even been known thrive in large puddles! Their natural food source is insects and mosquito larvae.

How Breeding Began

According to historical accounts, a close friend of the King of Siam, Dr. Theodore Cantor received a pair of breeding Bettas from the king in 1840. The doctor bred them and studied them for several years, and then wrote a scientific paper about them, giving them a Latin name of “Macropodus Pugnax.” However, shortly after his paper was published, Dr. Cantor discovered that a species by that name already existed, and so the fish were renamed “Betta Splendens.”

Several breeding pairs of Bettas where sent to Germany in 1896 and then in 1910, Mr. Frank Locke of San Francisco California imported several Bettas to the U.S.A.

One of the fish that he received had unusual red fins – and he excitedly thought he had discovered a new species, and named it “Betta Cambodia.” In reality, he had one of the first of the Betta splendens that had naturally developed new colors and characteristics through breeding.

Since that time, breeders have been able to develop Bettas with all of the vibrant coloring and varied fin shapes that we find today. Betta breeding has become a profitable and ongoing passion for many people today, many of whom started with just one or two Bettas in a small aquarium.

Source by Michael Worthington

You as The Alpha Dog

If you are the owner of a puppy or dog, you know how important dog training is. If you have a dog that is not trained, it adds a great deal of stress to your home life. A untrained dog will jump on your guests, treat your furniture as its own, pull on the leash. Try to escape from the boundaries you have set and generally be very difficult to be around.

This is not a good situation for you or your dogs. Dogs WANT to please you and make you happy. They want your attention, good attention that is. They just need to be shown and taught the correct ways to behave.

One thing that all dog owners should know is that dogs are “pack”animals. This means that they need a “pack” to survive. Dogs in the wild run in packs with a clearly defined leader or Alpha Dog. This dog is responsible for the safety of the pack. The other dogs follow his lead.

When dogs are brought into human households, it is very important that they know that you are the Alpha Dog . You need to be in charge and your dog needs to know that you are. This does not require you to be “mean ” to the dog but it does require you to be firm and always in control. The dog does what YOU want it to do when You want them to do it.

Dogs are much happier creatures when they are well trained. Because they do want to please you so badly, if they are well-trained – you will be happy and they will be happy. A household with a well trained dog is a much happier one then a household with a dog that poops/pees all over, chews on everything in the house and jumps up on everyone who walks in the door.

Everyone can learn how to train their dog. Even those with little or no experience can learn dog training tips that can make their life much easier. You can find dog training books at most bookstores. These can have some very valuable dog training tips inside.

In closing, if you have a dog at home that is ill-behaved, there is still hope. Don’t believe the saying that you can’t teach an old dog new tricks. While its true that dogs that are set in their bad behavior may take longer to train properly, all dogs can be trained. And if you have a puppy, you are in charge of teaching the puppy that they MUST obey you. You are the Alpha Dog of their pack. If you train a dog properly, both you and the dog will be much happier and live much more harmoniously.

Source by Jennie Crawford

Tips To Take Care of Your Yorkie

Yorkies feature silky, long coats, and this small breed of dogs is quite popular among dog lovers. At first, they were raised in England to help textile factories get rid of rats. Since then, these dogs have become great companion dogs and common people have started to raise them. Their real name is Yorkshire Terrier but they are called yorkies with love. These dogs are really energetic. Moreover, they require exercise, grooming and companionship to stay happy and healthy just like other dogs. Here are a few tips for you to take good care of your yorkie.

Bathe your yorkie

Bathing your yorkie is a good idea to keep them clean and odorless. Generally, you should bathe them at least once per month. Bathing them more often may cause dryness and irritation. You can use shampoo and conditioners for keeping their hair clean and strong.

Give it a haircut

Make it part of your routine to trim their hair on a regular basis. If not groomed properly, their hair can get matted and tangled. When brushed or bathed, they won’t lose too many hair. Also, keep in mind that your yorkie won’t shed its coat unlike other dogs. You can trim their hair on your own or you can hire a professional.

Brush its Coat

Yorkies have long coats that get tangled quickly if you don’t brush them frequently. You can keep their coat length short for their convenience. However, keep in mind that short coats need to be brushed more frequently. Don’t brush too hard and use a leave-in conditioner for moisturizing the hair after each episode of brushing.

Make Topknots

The hair of your yorkie will grow fast and hang over their eyes. To keep the hair from getting into its eyes, you can either make a topknot or keep the hair really short. Aside from this, you can use a comb to remove the knots from the hair and then secure the hair with a band.

Trim the nails

Just like other dogs, your yorkie will continue to grow its nails with the passage of time. To avoid overgrowth, you can trim its nails once every 2 months. If you find your dog biting its nails, it’s time to trim their nails. Overgrown nails cause pain and discomfort.

Choose nutritious food

Your yorkie won’t eat a good deal of food, especially if it’s an adult. You can feed your dog only once a day or leave the food portion in their house for the entire day. Make sure your dog has access to fresh, clean water throughout the day. You can buy a small bowl so that your dog can drink water easily.

Yorkies don’t need a special type of food and can eat commercial dog food available in the market. Remember: it’s not a good idea to overfeed your yorkie or it may run into health problems.

So, these are a few tips for you to keep your yorkie health throughout its life. Good luck with taking care of your puppy.

Source by Satvik Mittal

What Dogs Are Suitable to First Time Owners?

Dogs are intelligent beings and can easily be trained. Not only that they are fairly emotionally evolved, so, adopting a dog is just like adopting a child. However in order to ensure that you and your lovely pet share the good chemistry and a long sating relationship you need to ensure the dog species is suitable to be adopted and safe for your family members. Here are a few things you should consider especially of you are adopting the pet for the first time:


The first thing to consider while adopting a dog for the first time is the safety. Though dogs have been domesticated from the times immemorial and a regarded as the best companions of the human being, some of the dog breeds were especially raised to help their owners while hunting. There were others who were raised to be a fighter dog. In fact some of the species are banned in countries like US because of the potential danger they pose to the people. So, you should make sure that the first time dog bred that you are adopting should be safe and has been domesticated by the people as a house dog. Here are the best species you can go for:

• Corgi

• Boston Terrier


One of the best features of dogs is that they are playful. Whether you hurl the ball and allow them to fetch or train them the art of standing and shaking the hand, they can easily be trained. But then there are some species that are quite reserved. In fact, some of the species are so reserved that you might fear playing with them or going near them. Hence for the best interest of and your dog it is extremely important that you should ensure that the dog should be playful. Here are some of the best species:

• Pugs

• Cavalier King Charles


Size also matters a lot went you are adopting a dog for the first time. If you are living in small house or a flat then large sized dogs will not be suitable for you. You would rather make its life difficult. You can go for the small dogs. The same is true if you are in a frail health or does not have a strong physique. Not to mention that having kids at home can also affect your decision of adopting a large breed as kids are most vulnerable and you can never be completely sure of the temperament of dogs. What might appear to them as a play could be harmful of your small kid’s body! Here are two small sized lovely species:

• Beagle

• French Bulldog

Source by Ashish Chhanwal

The Best Food to Feed a Bearded Dragon

Bearded dragons make wonderful pets. They are active during the day, and when adult are large enough to be allowed to roam around the house for limited periods (that is, until they start getting cold) without any fears of them disappearing in small hiding places – obviously they need to be supervised at all times. They also have the advantage of almost being born tame and are happy to sit on their owner and will put up with a cuddle.

They are attractive and have great personalities, and make excellent pets for people who are allergic to fur and cannot have any of the more common warm blooded pets. In captivity with the correct husbandry they should live for up to 10 years or even more. The oldest I’m currently aware of is 12. To reach their potential live span they need to be fed the correct foods.

I am often contacted by people who would like to own a bearded dragon, and who want to know if there is any alternative to feeding them live food. The answer is a very definite NO. Although many pet shops stock dried food which is supposed to be for bearded dragons, I have never heard of one that actually will eat this. I’ve tried to feed it to mine but I think they would rather starve!

The amount and type of live food they need changes as they grow from hatchling to adult. When first hatched they are almost totally carnivorous. When adult they are 80% vegetarian. At all stages of their lives they should have the correct balance of vegetables/fruit and live food.

When a juvenile is purchased and brought home from the breeder or pet shop it is important to always offer finely chopped vegetables/fruit. The rule of thumb when feeding bearded dragons is to make sure no food offered is larger than the gap between their eyes. This goes for the size of live food offered, as well as the green stuff. If a juvenile has been properly fed from hatching it will be used to always have a bowl of veg in its enclosure, which it will peck at if there’s nothing better on offer. Juvenile bearded dragons are often similar to human toddlers – seemingly allergic to anything green! But if they’ve been used to it they’ll often continue to munch on salad and vegetables throughout their growing period. Some beardies refuse to touch vegetables – some (including mine!) have been known never to eat it when their owners are watching as if by pretending they are starving they’ll be offered something more tasty. But eventually they all succumb and eat it and, when adult, it will be their staple diet.

If you have a juvenile who won’t touch the stuff, don’t worry. He’ll get there in time, and though it’s disappointing to spend your time chopping food that’s not eaten, you must persevere. It’s best to try and variety of different vegetables and fruit – some beardies like some things, others don’t. Cabbage, mixed salad leaves, curly kale, peppers, sweet potato, grapes, apples, carrots are all foods which might appeal to a beardie. Experiment with items that you eat and see what yours likes.

Bearded dragons should never be fed avocado, and avoid items with a high moisture content such as iceburg lettuce, cucumber or tomatoes which will cause diarrhoea.

These reptiles have an astonishing rate of growth – they grow 4000 times in size from hatching to adult, and should reach full size between 12 and 18 months. To support this tremendous growth rate they have to have copious amounts of protein which can only be supplied by a main diet of live food. When deciding whether this is the pet for you, you need to factor in the cost of their food. During their first year of live they cost as much as a cat and some dogs to feed. There is also the problem of obtaining live food – but if you don’t live near a suitably stocked pet shop mail order is very efficient, and you can set up a regular order with most online suppliers.

The basic live food diet is crickets. These come in two types – brown, and black. Black are supposedly silent, but you’ll still get the odd one that will chirp all night. Both are nutritious. Crickets, as other insects, come in various sizes called instars. As a cricket grows it sheds its skin. First instar crickets are the smallest, and then they increase in size through various sheds until they reach adult size. Don’t feed crickets which are too big for your bearded dragon (remember the gap between the eyes rule), but conversely, if you try and offer crickets that are too small he might not be interested in them.

All live food should be gut fed – this simply means feeding them the same vegetables that you are offering your beardie. Hence even if he isn’t keen on vegetables, he’ll be getting the goodness by eating the crickets.

When growing rapidly they should be fed live food 3 times a day up until the age of about 4 months – as many as they can eat in a 10 minute session each time. This can be reduced to 2 feeds, and then to 1 when the beardie is a good size – around 6 to 8 months. It is difficult to give any definite ages as all bearded dragons grow at different rates. As they are such voracious eaters crickets are recommended as they are the cheapest to buy.

Bearded dragons need calcium supplement – daily until they are adult, and then about weekly thereafter. Calcium powder is sprinkled on their food. Without extra calcium they are likely to develop Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD) which causes deformities in their bone growth, and is often fatal. Prevention is far better than trying to cure it.

It is perfectly possible to feed crickets and dust them with calcium powder without having to touch them by using a Cricket Keeper. You empty the crickets from the tub they arrive in into the keeper, and put vegetables and water into it. Pots of water are not recommended as the crickets are likely to drown in it, instead you can buy Bug Gel, or simply put in cotton wool balls soaked in water. Cricket Keepers have four black tubes. The crickets go up the tubes as they like being in the dark. When it’s feeding time you simply lift out one of the tubes, spinkle some calcium supplement down the tube, put something over the top and shake vigorously. This coats the crickets evenly with calcium powder, and also slightly stuns them which makes them slower and easier for the beardie to catch. You can also slow down crickets by putting them in the fridge for a few minutes before feeding. Most beardies can catch them anyway, but some have difficulty at first, so slower moving crickets can be beneficial.

As beardies grow they can move on to locusts or roaches. A roach colony can be kept at home, and so you can breed your own live food and make feeding much cheaper though not everyone wants to do this. Locusts are much more tasty to a bearded dragon, and also more expensive to buy. If you start feeding these too early you may find he won’t go back to eating crickets, and hence it will be far more expensive. For that reason I recommend staying with crickets as long as possible. As adults they will only need livefood two or three times a week. Once they are fully grown too much protein will overload their internal organs so if you overfeed you will be killing them with kindness.

Meal worms should not be given to bearded dragons. They do like them, but their skins are high in chitin which is hard to digest, and they are not as nutritious as crickets or locusts. Morio worms are a good substitute, but I’d still stick with crickets as a staple diet. Silk worms can also be fed daily, but again are more expensive. Wax worms are only to be given as a treat as they are very rich. They do love them in the way we like chocolate!

Remember, feeding your bearded dragon the correct food for each stage of its life is important, but equally so is having your vivarium set up correctly. The basking temperature should be right as it helps them digest their food properly, and a strong UVB light is necessary so they get sufficient vitamins.

Fed correctly and kept in the right conditions, your bearded dragon should live to a ripe old age and be your companion for many years to come.

Source by Trish Haill

Hints on How to Take Great Pictures of Your Yorkshire Terrier Supermodel

Wouldn’t it be great to have a picture of your adorable, loyal Yorkshire Terrier on a tee shirt, a sweatshirt, a screensaver, a mouse pad, or a coffee mug? By following a few simple tips for taking outstanding pictures, you’ll be able to take high quality photos of your pet with an inexpensive digital camera, a disposable 35 mm camera or even a camera phone.

Taking pictures of your Yorkshire Terrier can be a fun activity for you and your dog to do together. This beautiful breed, with its silky coat, is a natural subject for portrait photography. Your dog can look terrific in pictures whether you use the very latest in high-tech digital cameras or an inexpensive camera phone.

Taking digital photos can save you a ton of money over old-fashioned prints from 35-mm. film. With digital photography, you only pay for the pictures that you want to print. Blurry shots, overexposed frames, red eyes and other rejected frames all disappear into the digital trashcan with a single click.

Your dog only has a certain amount of patience, so get everything ready beforehand. Put fresh high-capacity memory storage card in your digital camera, replace the batteries and carry fresh batteries with you.

Choose a setting for your pictures. For an indoor setting, make sure there is plenty of light shining on your Yorkshire Terrier, and arrange any backdrops you will need so you can grab them quickly between shots. If you are taking pictures outdoors, secure the area for your Yorkshire Terrier’s safety. A fenced back yard makes a great outdoor setting.

As soon as you pick up the camera, you have your hands full. You need to devote your attention to framing the shot and operating the camera, so ask someone to help you. Choose someone who gets along with your dog, and whom your dog likes. Taking pictures together can be a fun adventure for the three of you. Serving refreshments for the people and the dog will help make the session more enjoyable. Take plenty of breaks to keep your dog from tiring out. Thank your assistant after the session is over by sending him or her one of the great Yorkshire Terrier pictures you took with your assistant’s help.

Nothing is worse than taking great picture of your Yorkshire Terrier without noticing that you have a cluttered background, with laundry, dishes or newspapers competing for attention with your dog. To avoid clutter, use a solid-colored background to make your pictures the best they can be. Another way to have a spectacular background in your Yorkshire Terrier pictures is to use a chromatic green backdrop. With a chromatic green backdrop, your background disappears digitally, and you can insert your Yorkshire Terrier into virtually any backdrop you can find. You can add surf, turf or snow to your picture without every going to the beach, the park, or the mountain.

The best Yorkshire Terrier pictures all seem to be at the dog’s eye level. Don’t be afraid to get down on the floor with your dog and take pictures, or set your dog on a tabletop or bed to raise its height. Remember, safety first! With these great tips, soon you’ll be taking amazing pictures of your dog.

Source by Susan Bailey

When To Bring Your Dog To The Vet: 5 Signs To Watch Out For

One of the biggest challenges a dog owner has to face is taking care of a sick pet. While a bout of diarrhea or lack of appetite can be scary, it doesn’t necessarily mean that you should take him to the vet right away. But if the problem persists for more than a day, it’s probably wise to give the doctor a call. Is my dog’s condition serious or am I just panicking? Knowing when to bring your furry friend to get checked out can be confusing especially to new pet owners.

Here are 5 signs that you should bring your dog to the vet:

Abdominal pain or distension

Abdominal pain is a warning sign of a medical emergency and your pet must be brought to the vet right away. When you feel your furry friend’s abdomen and he shows signs of pain, it may mean that he has a twisted stomach which has complete obstruction. It is called gastric dilation-volvolus or more commonly referred to as bloat. Fluid distension from heart disease and internal bleeding due to ruptured spleen may also cause abdominal pain in dogs.

Collapse or lethargy

There are days that your dog may seem lazy and lethargic but if this goes on for 24 to 48 hours, it’s time to take him to the vet. If you observe your dog to have prolonged periods of sleep, disinterest in interacting or playing, hiding in unusual places and no desire for your daily walk, he may be experiencing collapse. This is usually caused by anaphylactic shock, allergic response, hypoglycemia, internal bleeding, dehydration, metabolic distress and even Addison’s disease.

Leg paralysis

If you observe your furry friend suddenly having difficulty using one or more of his legs, this is most probably herniation in a part of his spinal cord. This is generally a medical emergency in dogs. If left untreated, it can lead to changes in your dog’s mental state.

Eye problems

Red eyes, bulging eyes as well as extreme swelling and tearing are considered eye emergencies in pets and they should be brought to the vet at the soonest time possible. When left untreated, eye problems will worsen and can lead to blindness.


A seizure, especially when experienced in clusters, indicate a medical emergency. It may be caused by serious underlying conditions such as a brain mass, electrolyte imbalance, toxin ingestion or epilepsy. Have your pet checked by your vet right away.

If you observe any of these 5 signs on your pet dog, don’t hesitate to seek the help of your vet at the soonest time possible.

Source by Mary L. James

5 Tips To Keep Your Dog Safe Inside The House

Canines are truly curious beings that even when in the safety of a home, they still find trouble. They love to bite and chew just about anything that comes their way which is their way of exploring the world around them. However, most of the things inside the house are not edible and biting as well as chewing can be harmful to a dog’s health. To keep your furry friend safe inside the house, follow these simple dog safety tips:

Keep cupboards closed at all times

One of the most dangerous items that your pet can come across with in your home are household cleaners. Whether they are placed in the bathroom or in the kitchen, cleaners contain plenty of toxic substances that can poison your dog and cause serious complications to his health. Remember to keep cupboards closed at all times – use child proof locks if your dog knows your way around them. Better yet, keep the harmful cleaners out of your dog’s reach by placing them on high shelves.

Train your dog to keep away from electric cords

Electric cords are another threat to pets who live inside the house. Unfortunately, somewhat they are tempting to canines, especially puppies. Aside from going through the hassle of replacing a chewed-on cord (again!), cords can cause electrical shock or burns to pets. Keep your cords in bundles and out of reach from your furry friends as possible and teach them that chewing on anything electrical is a no-no.

Make your garage pet-friendly

The garage is another area in the home where dangerous chemicals for the car or for the yard are stored. For example, dogs are attracted to the sweetness of antifreeze but can be lethal to them when consumed. Keep these chemicals on high shelves if your dog spends time in the garage.

Know which house plants are dangerous to dogs

Holly and Easter Lily are holiday plants that can be poisonous to canines, among others. Do some research about pet-friendly house plants to place in your home if you have pets running around.

Keep the garbage out of reach

Pets have this habit of going through the garbage – sometimes out of curiosity and sometimes because they’re looking for food. Keep garbage bins out of reach from pets. Also make sure that your dog has daily scheduled feedings that keep his hunger at bay throughout the day to keep him from looking for food from other places.

Follow these easy dog safety tips to keep your pet healthy and happy inside your home!

Source by Mary L. James

5 Common Plants That Can Poison Your Pet Dog

Dogs are curious creatures and will sniff and eat anything they fancy, including plants and flowers. While most plants won’t do any harm to their health, there are some that can be poisonous for them – some of which are commonly found just about anywhere. If you have a garden, you should be more mindful about the safety of your furry friend.

Here are some common plants that can poison your dog:


Tulips are beautiful seasonal flowers that can be toxic to canines. The flower’s bulbs can cause irritation to your dog’s mouth and esophagus which would likely lead to abdominal pain and discomfort, diarrhea, drooling and vomiting.


Daffodils are very popular flowers, often found in public parks and gardens. Unfortunately, they are harmful to canines. These beautiful flowers contain crystals and lycorine which may cause abdominal pain, cardiac arrhythmias, diarrhea, difficulty breathing, drooling and vomiting. Ingestion of the a daffodil’s bulb (the most poisonous part) can cause a drop in blood pressure and severe gastrointestinal issues in canines.


Azaleas are pretty flowers but are very toxic for our furry friends. It contains grayanotoxins which may disrupt the normal functions of a dog’s heart and skeletal muscles if ingested. Ingestion of even just a small amount of this plant can cause abnormal heart rate, abdominal pains, diarrhea,vomiting, tremors and weakness in dogs.


Lilies are another popular choice when it comes to flowers in a garden or at home. They are toxic to dogs and are considered deadly to cats. Cats who ingest even a small amount of lilies may suffer from acute kidney failure. All types of lilies are harmful to pets but the most poisonous ones are Asiatic, Day, Easter, Japanese and Tiger.


Another popular outdoor flowering shrub, the beautiful oleander is extremely poisonous for both canines and felines. Th plant contains both nerioside and cardiac glycosides oleandrin which if ingested by pets can lead to fatal heart abnormalities, bloody diarrhea, incoordination, muscle tremors and vomiting. Symptoms begin within an hour of ingestion and in most cases, treatment is not successful that’s why it’s important to keep your pets away from the oleander plant.

While these plants are beautiful, it’s safe to remove them or not plant them in your garden if you have pets at home. Also be extra observant of the plants that your pet sniffs when you go out for your daily walks.

Source by Mary L. James