Archives for August 2017

What You Need To Know About Credit Cards

What is a credit card? A credit card is a card that allows you to borrow money to pay for things. There will be a limit to how much you can spend called your credit limit. At the end of each month you can either pay off the whole of the amount you owe or make a minimum repayment. Other kinds of cards include: 1) A cheque guarantee card, issued by your bank, that you can use to ensure that your cheque will be honoured up to a certain limit.

2) A chargecard where you have to repay the full amount at the end of each month.

3) A debit card, issued by your bank, where whatever you spend is immediately deducted from your bank account Do you need a credit card? Using a credit card is a useful way of making purchases: a) A credit card means you don’t need to carry huge amounts of cash around and risk losing it.

b) A credit card means you can buy items over the internet.

c) A credit card means you can make purchases abroad without having to worry about local currency.

d) A credit card gives the opportunity to spread the cost of a large payment over several months.

e) A credit card is useful in an emergency. For example, an unexpected repair to your house or car.How do you choose a credit card? The main two UK credit card issuers are Visa and Mastercard. These are accepted in most places and in 130 countries worldwide. Beware of less well known brands that may not be accepted everywhere. Before you choose which credit card is the best for you, remember to read the terms and conditions carefully. Never sign up for a credit card without fully understanding what you are agreeing to. Remember that all the plus factors will be prominently displayed in large print. You may have to study the small print carefully to discover if there are any negative factors.
A list of the current cards on offer in summary is available on this credit card summary page. What You Need To Consider:1) APR (Annual Percentage Rate)

This is the rate of interest that you will pay on any outstanding balance. 2) Special Introductory Rates

You may be offered a low or 0% rate of interest for a limited time (Up to 6 months) when you sign up for a new card. A higher rate of interest may be charged for cash withdrawals. 3) Balance Transfer Rate

Card issuers may offer you a lower rate of interest if your swap your balance from another credit card to theirs. 4) Interest Free period

Remember to check when interest payments will begin. Will you pay interest from the day of the purchase? Or will you have a number of days interest free before you begin to pay? There is usually no interest free period for cash withdrawals. 5) Cashback and Rewards

Some cards over points or rewards for every pound spent on the credit card. Make sure that these are appropriate for you. For example, there&’s no use collecting airmiles if you never fly. 6) Minimum Repayment

Remember to check what the minimum monthly repayment will be. If you borrow £1000 on your credit card the monthly minimum repayment will probably be in the region of £25. But if you only pay this amount each month it will take a long time to pay off the balance and cost a lot in total when you include the interest payments. 7) Annual Fees

This is the fee that the issuer will charge you every year for using their credit card. Not all credit cards have an annual fee, so remember to consider this when you are choosing which one is right for you. 8) Late Payments

There will be an extra charge, as well as the interest owed, if your payment is late. This charge may even be more than the amount you owe so be very careful to check what the charge is, and to ensure that all your payments are made on time. A good way of doing this is to set up a direct debit from your current account. 9) Exceeding Your Limit

You may also be charged a fee if you exceed your credit limit. Will Your Application Be Accepted? Whether or not your application is successful will depend on your credit rating. Your credit rating depends on your credit history (a record of your use of credit) and is based on the record of your ability to repay debt. You can obtain a copy of your credit file by contacting a credit reference agency. There may be a small fee for this service. When you application has been accepted you will be given a credit limit. The credit limit will be fixed when you first apply for your card (although you can ask for it to be increased or decreased later) and the limit, including the amount you have left available to spend, will be shown on your monthly statement. Insurances and Protection. What You Can Do: 1) Take good care of your credit card to ensure that it isn’t lost or stolen. 2) To prevent misuse of your card you must report any loss or theft of your card to the issuer immediately. Many issuers allow you to register all your cards with them so that in the event of you losing a purse, handbag or wallet they can all be cancelled with just one phone call. 3) You must keep all your receipts and also check your statement carefully and report any suspicious transactions. For example payments that you have no record of making. 4) Credit card companies are now issuing cards with PIN (Personal identification numbers) which are known as Chip and PIN cards. Rather than signing your name you will be asked to enter your PIN onto a keypad. You must ensure that you keep this number secret. What The Issuer Will Do 1) The issuer should insure you against loss, misuse or theft of your card. 2) The issuer may also insure your purchases for up to 100 days. 3) Your issuer may also provide protection against you being sold unsuitable or shoddy goods. Important Points To Remember:a) Credit cards can be a very useful tool to help you to manage your finances.

b) Choose your card carefully, remembering to read and understand all the terms and conditions before you sign up.

c) Remember to set yourself a budget and decide how much you will pay off each month.

d) Check your statements carefully each month.

e) Look after your card to prevent it being lost or stolen.For a glossary of the terms mentioned in this article please visit the credit card glossary page.

Source by Phil Edwards

Puppy Dog Training- A Time Table For Companionship

Puppy dog obedience training is as easy as 1,2,3. But if you don’t know what you are doing it will seem very difficult in the beginning. This article will provide you with professional training tips that you should utilize when considering bringing a new puppy dog into your home, so pay attention.

1) You have to establish yourself as leader of the pack or also known as alpha dog. If this is not done than your new companion will think he/she is boss. This step should be done rather quickly, because it won’t take your new arrival long to think they can be boss.

2) Be patient, persistent and repetitive. Use a firm steady voice and stay calm. Try training your new friend in 10-15 minute sessions 5-6 times a day. Be in tune with your dogs mood this will make training easier for both you and your new best friend. Don’t expect your puppy to learn everything in one day.

3) Positively reinforce by giving a treat for good behavior. Also correct bad behavior while it happens not after. Let your new puppy know that you are in control of the things they value most like their toys and treats.

There is no other situation where patience with your puppy will be as important as the first several weeks in your home. Proper dog training will take time, will take obedience, and a lot of care. So be sure if you are going to train a puppy dog you know what you are doing.

Source by Rebecca Sorber

Foreclosure Rescue Plan is Released on 3-4-2009 by the Obama Administration – What Can it Do For You

Obama Foreclosure Rescue Program Summary

There has been a lot of news coming out of Washington lately about the housing and foreclosure crisis. I get many questions from people who want to know if they “qualify” for help. That’s why I am going to briefly explain the highlights of President Obama’s plan to reduce foreclosures. It is estimated (by the government) that this plan will help up to 9 million homeowners. According to the Mortgage Bankers Association, there are about 51 million first mortgages in the United States which means about 18% of the total might qualify. On March 4, 2009 we finally were given the “details” everyone has been waiting to hear. Please keep in mind that this is just a summary and that there are additional details. The new initiative is being called “Making Home Affordable” (also known as MHA); here’s just a few of the government acronyms to keep track of: TARP, TALF, H4H, GSE, FNMA, FLHMC, PITI, FHA, VA, USDA, etc. It’s starting to get a bit crazy, even for real estate and finance professionals.

There are essentially 2 parts to the program: The first is a plan to refinance eligible mortgages and it is being referred to as “Home Affordable Refinance”. The other part deals with loan modifications and is known as…”Home Affordable Modification”. It’s just a matter of time until these are called “HAR” & “HAM”.

First the HAR (Home Affordable Refinance):

o The current mortgage must be owned or guaranteed by either Fannie Mae (FNMA) or Freddie Mac (FLHMC). If you are not sure if your mortgage meets this first requirement, you can call (800) 7FANNIE or (800)7FREDDIE between 8am – 8pm EST.

o The property MUST be your primary residence. Second Homes and Investment Properties do not qualify.

o The borrower(s) have sufficient income to qualify.

o The mortgage must be up to date with no 30 day delinquencies in the last 12 months.

o The first mortgage cannot exceed 105% of the current market value. Example: If the property is worth $100,000, the maximum that can be owed is $105,000.

o If there are additional mortgages (Second Mortgage, Home Equity Line of Credit, or other liens), the other lien holders must be willing to subordinate their liens in writing to the new first mortgage. Subordinate simply means that the first mortgage will retain it’s superior lien position. It is OK if the total owed exceeds 105% of current value, as long as the first mortgage refinance does not exceed the 105% rule.

o The program officially started 3/4/2009.

Now comes the HAM (Home Affordable Modification):

o To be eligible, the Lender must be willing to participate. Investor/Lender & Servicer participation is voluntary on their part.

o The intention of the program is to avoid foreclosures whenever possible. Each case is evaluated separately and borrowers must prove that they can afford the modified payment. There must be a steady source of income to be eligible.

o There must be a documented financial hardship to qualify.

o The current monthly PITI (Principle, Interest, Taxes, & Insurance Total) must exceed 31% of the borrower(s) gross monthly income. No jokes allowed about the “PITI” acronym.

o The borrowers do not need to be current on the monthly payments. Again, each situation is unique and will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

o The goal of the plan is to reduce the total housing PITI payment for all mortgages to no more that 31% of gross income. This includes any second mortgages or HELOCS who must be willing to participate and subordinate their liens to the new modified mortgage.

o The subject first mortgage must be for the Borrower’s primary residence. Second homes and investment properties are not eligible.

o The subject mortgage must have been made before 1/1/2009 and it cannot exceed $729,750. I am sure there is a reason that they used $729,750 as the maximum, but I cannot find any information about how the government arrived at this amount.

o The payment reduction will be achieved by reducing the interest rate, extending the term of the loan, or by a principle reduction (last resort). Remember, this is voluntary on the lender/investor and/or servicer’s part.

o Modifications are for a 90 day “trial” period. If the borrower(s) honor all of the terms during the 90 day trial, then the modification will be extended for a term of no less than 5 years.

o Beginning in year 6, the interest rate can be increased by no more than 1% per year until the note rate reaches the “Freddie Mac Primary Mortgage Market Survey Rate” on the date that the modification is executed.

Since this article was intended to be a “brief” general summary of the “highlights”, I will stop here. There are additional terms and conditions that can be found at

Let’s all hope that this new initiative is more successful than the Hope for Homeowners Program (H4H) that started October 1, 2008. The following article was published recently by Time Magazine:

Grade: F

The Plan: Enacted on Oct. 1, Hope for Homeowners was to be the main foreclosure rescue plan from Congress, which allocated $300 billion for the effort. Supporters in Congress, like Massachusetts Representative Barney Frank, said the program would allow hundreds of thousands of borrowers, perhaps millions, to refinance into lower-cost loans by cutting the amount they owed, which for many at-risk-of-default homeowners was more than their house was worth.

The Result: So how many people has Hope for Homeowners saved from foreclosure? Zero. There have been 326 applications in the three months since the program started, but none of those people – let alone the nearly 6 million homeowners who, by some estimates, may face foreclosure in the next few years – have received a new mortgage or a modification for the one they have. What’s more, none of the major mortgage lenders, such as Bank of America, Citigroup and Wells Fargo, has signed on to the loan-principal-reduction program – which gives Hope for Homeowners little chance of being successful anytime soon. “Foreclosure is the problem we have to spend a lot more effort trying to solve,” says the Economic Policy Institute’s Robert Scott. “We need to put a floor under housing prices, and stopping foreclosures is the way you do that.”

Please keep in mind that this is my interpretation of the guidelines and that all information should be independently verified. Finally, please remember…since this is a government program, all rules and guidelines are subject to change. Stay tuned…and make it a great day!

Source by David L Smith

How To Fix "Binkw32 Is Missing" Errors On Splinter Cell Chaos Theory

Binkw32.dll is used to help games such as “Splinter Cell Chaos Theory” to load up the advanced graphics & video files they require to run. As part of the “Bink Video Codec”, the binkw32.dll file is an extremely important part of many popular games and needs to be running perfectly to ensure your computer can actually play the game you want. Unfortunately for many people, binkw32.dll often causes an error which prevents the game from loading – leading your PC to become erroneous and unreliable. If you’re seeing a binkw32.dll error with the Splinter Cell Chaos Theory game, the good news is that there are a number of things you can do to fix the problem for good.

The errors which binkw32.dll normally causes will typically say things along the lines of “binkw32.dll not found” and “binkw32.dll is missing”. These errors can be caused by a number of reasons, including the likes of different games installing incorrect versions of the file onto your PC, as well as Windows having some sort of errors leading the error to show. If you want to resolve the error you’re seeing on your system, you need to be able to fix the problems which are leading it to show – which will include reinstalling the game and cleaning out your PC’s “registry”.

The way to fix this error is to go through a series of causes of it and then repair them. The first way to do this is to reinstall the Splinter Cell Chaos Theory game on your PC – by clicking Start > Control Panel > Add / Remove Programs. This will replace all the files this program uses, which will basically give your computer the ability to read them all in the best way possible again. You also need to be able to clean out the ‘registry database’ of your PC with a registry cleaner program. The registry is a common cause of all sorts of DLL errors on your PC, because of the way it stores a large list of the DLL files your computer requires to run. The registry is the central hub of information that Windows computers will use to “remember” everything from your DLL files to your most recent emails, and although it’s one of the most important parts of your system it’s also a huge cause of errors. To ensure this problem is not causing the error on your PC, it’s recommended you reinstall your game and then use a registry cleaner to fix any issues Windows has.

Source by James Henry Johnson

How to Select a Wedding Photographer

Selecting a wedding photographer can be a daunting task. Not only does the photographer need to be able to produce outstanding memories of your wedding day but also has to be able to fit into the celebration and be highly professional every step of the way.

Often couples make the mistake of basing their decision on wedding photography entirely on price. At the end couples that decide on price get what they pay for.

It is wise to keep your budget in mind when selecting a photographer but it should not be an excuse no to do your homework and evaluate the quality and professionalism of the photographer. Remember, you will have to live with the consequences of your decision.

How to evaluate a wedding photographer?

The style of the wedding photography is very important. Is the photographer a photojournalist with heavy emphasis in documenting the wedding without directing? Do you prefer posed photographs with preplanned posing and controlled lights? Most couples these days prefer a combination of journalistic and traditional wedding photography. They look for a photographer that can capture the true emotion and spirit of the celebration as well as portraits that deserve to be framed.

Whatever style you prefer the photographer has to be a master of the craft. Take a close look at the photographer’s portfolio. Is the work consistent? Insist on looking at a complete wedding. After photographing 20 weddings, it is easy to have 20 lucky shots. Very few photographers have the guts to show you a complete wedding. Only the good ones do.

Are the photographs a true representation of the photographer’s work?

If you are considering a studio that has several photographers insist on looking at the work of the photographer that is going to photograph your wedding.

Does the studio or photographer offer high quality albums and custom printing? Nowadays it is common for some photographers to offer to photograph the wedding and hand you the proofs and a CD or the negatives with the photos and be done with you. Are you going to be happy with a set of proofs or would you want a fine album with custom printed photographs?

Has the photographer been in business for a considerable amount of time? Is this his first wedding? Is he a commercial or sports photographer beginning wedding photography? There is nothing wrong with starting out in a different photography field but you, as the client, need to know this. Wedding photography requires special artistic, technical, and people skills and a wedding it is not the place for a beginner to learn. Somebody interested in learning wedding photography should perhaps accompany a seasoned pro to weddings for some time before venturing out on his own.

Does the photographer carry good quality equipment and backup of camera bodies, lenses, tripod, lights etc? You will be surprised to learn that many photographers go to weddings with only one camera. God help you if that camera breaks in the middle of your wedding.

Personality plays a very important role in wedding photography. Hire the wrong photographer and you and your guests will suffer the consequences. Does the photographer listen to you? Does he have a controlling personality? Does he abide by the rules of the church, temple, or synagogue? Does he want to steal the show and be the center of attention? Does he have people skills? Does he dress professionally? Does he look and smell clean?

Before hiring your photographer please make sure that you answer all the questions above. As a last precaution check with the Better Business Bureau to see if there are unsolved complains against your potential photographer.

Have a happy wedding and enjoy your beautiful photos. Please don’t forget to feed your photographer he or she will be working hard to capture your wedding memories.

Source by Juan Carlos Torres

12 Easy Steps to a House Trained Puppy

Getting a new puppy is always an occasion for joy, but for first-timers, it can also be stressful. Of course, you want to get everything right, so that you and your new best friend can enjoy many happy years together, and that means training your puppy to become a good canine citizen. Before you get going on obedience training, though, start with house training.

How It’s Done

You might think that house training is going to take forever, but the reality is that if you follow these twelve basic steps, you’ll get the job done quickly – probably in just a few weeks.

1. Be Consistent

There is more than one way of house training a puppy. Just make sure that whatever approach you take, you stick with it.

2. Have a Routine

Dogs are happiest when they know what to expect, and what’s expected of them. So set specific times for meals. Then, about half an hour after your puppy has eaten, put him outside, and wait until he’s done his business. Then bring him back in.

3. Be Watchful

Puppies need to be closely supervised, especially during house training. You should keep your puppy with you, and keep an eye out for signs that he needs to go potty (walking in circles is a tip-off).

4. Don’t Ask for Too Much Too Soon

A puppy is not going to be able to control his bladder or bowels for very long. In fact, when you first bring your puppy home (usually at around 8 weeks of age), you can expect that he’ll need to go outside every couple of hours. As he matures, he’ll have more control.

5. Plan for Frequent Trips Outdoors

If you can, take your puppy outdoors hourly, at least for the first few days. This way, you’ll dramatically reduce the chances of accidents in the house, and you’ll also be increasing the number of opportunities you have to reinforce the idea that you want him to do his business outside.

6. Separate Potty Time from Play Time

Don’t hang around outdoors once the potty break is over – bring the puppy inside right away. You can go right back out to play in a few minutes if you like, but what you’re trying to do is reinforce the idea that the yard is where he’s supposed to pee and poop.

7. Pick a Spot

You’ll have greater success if you choose just one place in the yard for potty trips (it will make cleaning up easier, too). Always lead the puppy to one spot. His nose will tell him that this is the right place.

8. Pick a Phrase

When you take the puppy to the spot you’ve chosen, tell him “Go potty,” or another phrase you’ve chosen. Eventually, he’ll go to his special spot in the yard just by being told, without needing to be led.

9. Make Good Things Happen

Praise your puppy and give him a treat once you’re back in the house – not while he’s doing his business in the yard. You don’t want him to think he’s being praised for peeing or pooping; otherwise, he’s not going to understand why he’s not praised when he does it in the house. What you’re teaching him is that if he does his business outside, something good will happen when get gets back indoors.

10. Don’t Feed Before Bed

Two hours before it’s time to turn in for the night, take away the water dish, and don’t offer any treats. This way, the chances of accidents during the night can be reduced.

11. Use a Crate

When you can’t be at home, put your puppy in a crate. Most dogs are reluctant to eliminate where they sleep. Just make sure that the crate isn’t so big that the puppy decides that one area is for sleeping, and another for eliminating. Before crating, make sure he gets a potty trip out to the yard, and when you get back, take him outside again.

12. Never Punish

Don’t punish your puppy for accidents. Some dogs take a bit longer than others to house train, but if you punish, you run the risk of the puppy trying to hide his mistakes from you.

The Final Word

House training a puppy takes a bit of time and effort, but it needs to be done. Just be consistent, praise and reward your puppy, and you’ll probably be pleasantly surprised at how quickly it can be accomplished

Source by Kim Eliza

Apartment Building Investing – Find Motivated Sellers

As the creator of the “Buy Your First Apartment Building E-Course” I have many potential students and beginning investors ask me, “How do I find motivated apartment building sellers?”

There are many ways that investors use to find motivated sellers, however, what I see happening many times with beginners is that they start looking for properties to purchase before they thoroughly understand how to identify a truly profitable opportunity. Here are my recommendations for how to begin learning about multifamily investing and then how to find motivated sellers.

Begin by learning what makes mult-family property profitable by taking these steps:

  1. Study and learn about what makes an apartment building profitable.
  2. Read as many books about real estate investment and apartment building investment as possible. It is a lot easier to learn from other people’s mistakes. There is no need to reinvent to the wheel.
  3. Find a reputable real estate investment club in your geographic area and meet with the commercial investor members. These “old hands” are a valuable source of market information.

After the aspiring multi-family property buyer has received a thorough education by reading books, industry magazines and networking with other commercial real estate investors then he or she is ready to begin the process of searching for an actual property to purchase.

Contacting Commercial Realtors

A great reference source for finding well educated commercial real estate agents is the CCIM website. The CCIM is a professional designation that qualifies a commercial real estate professional as capable and knowledgeable in the field. You can also find commercial real estate agents using a simple search on the web.

When searching for a commercial real estate agent take these steps:

  1. Speak to a number of commercial realtors in the area and ask about “pocket listings”. Pockets listings are apartment building owners that the experienced realtor might know who are serious about selling their building but they have not listed the property yet.
  2. Find a commercial realtor who specializes in multi-family investments. A good commercial realtor who specializes in multifamily properties should have a great knowledge of what apartment buildings have sold for recently.

Alternative Strategies for Finding Apartment Building Deals:

  1. Place an ad on Craigslist stating what you are looking for:
  2. “Looking To Sell Your Apartment Building? I am a commercial real estate investor interested in buying multi-family property in Philadelphia between 5 and 100 units. I am looking for owner financing over five years with 5% down or will buy with a 20% down payment and a bank loan.”

    Or, here is an ad that I copied directly from Craigslist this morning:

    Moving? tax benefits run out? call me for a offer.

  3. You can also place the same ad in the commercial real estate section of your local newspaper but be prepared to pay a handsome sum for the ad and also be ready for unsolicited calls for real estate agents. Newspaper ads do work but you are better off using free or more direct methods like direct mail.
  4. Another strategy is to contact the owners of commercial real estate directly. This can be done in a number of ways. Multi-family owners can be located by researching the tax records of a metropolitan area. Usually, the owner of record will be listed along with his or her or contact information. The next step is to write a letter that explains who you are and what you are trying to accomplish. The purpose of letter to have many interested apartment building owners contact you. You should leave your phone number, mailing address and email address for sellers to contact you. You should make it very easy for the sellers to get a hold of you. Remember, you will need to look at dozens of deals and sellers before you find the one that fits your investment criteria. You can also contact owners directly by telephone. Keep in mind that multifamily property owners are usually very busy so you might want to write a script or have talking points written down so you are able to get right to the point and get your message across accurately.

Source by Ted Karsch

Three Ways To Find An Emergency Plumber Near Me

No one can completely prepare for all the inconveniences that can occur during homeownership. We expect the electricity to work, our appliances to work, water to flow from the tap, and that same water to drain shortly after. When our plumbing system fails to work, it can quickly lead to disasters that are expensive and time consuming to fix. But, regardless of how hard we try to keep things in working order, sooner or later things will go wrong. Here are three ways to find an “emergency plumber near me.”

1. Prepare with a list or directory

When you own a home, live in a home, or rent out a home, you have to be prepared for any issues that may pop up. It is beneficial to plan ahead by creating a list of services that may be required for all different types of maintenance or repairs. Creating a list for electrical services, heating ventilation and cooling services, appliances, and especially plumbing services, will allow you to quickly contact and set up an appointment once an unforeseen incident occurs. For ease of use you could organize the list by service, by name, or even by other factors such as pricing and locality.

2. Use local resources

Just about every city has their own newspaper or local magazine that gets put out weekly, biweekly, or monthly. A weekly newspaper is a great way to stay up to date on any new services that may be available to you locally. Not only will you be supporting a local company, but you should even be able to get some feedback from neighbors and friends. With local companies, you can ensure that a job will be well done and that a strong reputation is at stake. Also, if there do happen to be any issues, you can head back and speak with a manager in person to have your issue taken care of.

3. Use technology

Currently, there are plenty of online resources to help you find the services you need. Many websites have popped up in recent years for the sole purpose of connecting local and national business with the exact type of customer who may need and require their services. Not only do these websites act as a directory to different parts of the country, they also contain helpful information in the form of reviews and word of mouth testimonials. Many smart phone apps can also search for this same information as well. The information you need is right at your finger tips.

Use these three tips the next time you are in need of a dire repair service. Be prepared and you will be ready for anything.

Source by Christopher Rivera

The Enemy Within

The enemy within is a nonfiction historical account of the development of witch hunts both in Europe and in the American colonies. The author is John Demos who is a professor of history at Yale University and is the author of several articles and books on American history.

The early European development of witch craft started in local cult activities beginning in the middle ages when there was a great deal of superstition. Many of these thoughts had been passed down from pre-Christian times and typically focused on crop fertility, weather, love, sex reproduction, health, property and many other human relationships. With time three highly charged images would gain strength those being the Devil, the heretic and the magician in which each or all three would become the image of the witch.

Witchcraft gained momentum due to environmental factors such as civil wars, religious wars, famine, plagues, political turmoil, harsh climate change which resulted in dislocation and dispossession of large elements of the peasant population.

Typically the witch would be a middle aged or elderly widow who had lost the protection of her male counterpart. It appears that menopause and the loss of reproduction played an important role in the definition of the witch. Many of them were impoverished and could become targets of suspicion and resentment.

There seems to be three elements in which witchcraft became evident. The fist was distress caused by epidemic disease,floods, earthquakes, droughts, or clusters of house fires or shipwrecks. The second was remarkable events such as the appearance of comets,eclipses and meteorites.The third was caused by human affairs such wars, community division over religion or controversy of ownership of property.

With time witchcraft served to explain painful and baffling communal experiences. Disappointment and failure could be explained by witchcraft such as crop and livestock failures. butter that would not churn and could even include loss of love and broken friendships.

In Puritan American, the typical village lived with a fear of disorder and thus they found within their faith strength, hope and the promise of a new life. They believed that intense and unrelenting discipline would be able to control disorder. Thus, when disorder such as crop failure occurred in the village, they had to have an explanation for the cause. And the scapegoat was the witch. It is interesting to note that when the offending witch had been removed such as through a conviction, the village would feel a surge of unity as the process of removal of the witch seemed to be restorative and amazingly the crop failures would reverse.

In Salem, probably the most famous witch hunt, it appears that the whole scene was one of fraud and imposture, begun by young girls who at first wanted to be pitied and indulged and then continued by adult persons who were afraid of being persecuted themselves. It has been further stated that witchcraft frenzy was a matter of superstitious fanaticism promoted by the ravings and goadings of the clergy. The result in addition to shedding the blood of numerous innocent victims created lasting political and intellectual damage to the village.The Salem courts were led by the same men that led the community in politics and the military.These men failed to stem attacks on visible enemies and to shift the responsibility to the demons of the invisible world.

Why do we use this expression? Why is the college degree called a “bachelor’s” degree? Originally a “bachelor” was a soldier not old or rich enough to lead in battle under his own banner. Thus bachelor meant a person of inferior rank. It was applied to the college degree to differentiate it from the higher degree of “doctor”.


Source by Amilu Stewart

Work Institutions, Leadership, and Culture

Work, leadership, institutions and culture are interrelated and integral to positive psychology. All people tend to identify themselves with work. People even introduce other people, such as: “She is Mary, a psychologist.”. If people do not work and do not make money, their self-esteem decreases. Work adds or does not add purpose to life. Work, whether it is paid or not, is a big part of life. Even if people were financially free, people would still do something with their time, after getting all the fun and travel out of their system. Therefore, happiness at work transfers and contributes to people’s life happiness. Work naturally shapes people’s network or circle of influence, as humans like to group up with people who share commonalities with their work, industry, and professional experiences.

Furthermore, studies show that satisfied workers have higher work titles than unsatisfied workers. Employers like high energy workers as they are effective, accomplish tasks in less time and do not use sick days. Most coaches agree with Myers’ findings, as they see these results in the organizational coaching they conduct. Workers, who live chaos free, stay organized, accomplish tasks in less time than workers who are not disciplined, and are chaotic. Everyone can think of a time when she or he has become overwhelmed, as a result of too much work, and cannot function and think intelligently. Individuals can also think of times when they were not stimulated at work;, their work was repetitive and meaningless. Studies have shown that the workers who thrive, are the ones who are continuously challenged in meaningful ways, so work can become fun and play.

Karl Marx pointed out the importance of self-expressing yourself at work, for work satisfaction. Also, there has to be value in what people do. All jobs are necessary and each person needs others to be able to work and live. A vital skill is being able to transform perceived threats into healthy challenges. Another way for work and life happiness is to live intentionally and take charge, versus reacting to what the Universe may bring us. It is important to set intentions. Wellness overall depends on mindful challenges.

In addition, using the principles of Positive Psychology, people can design positive intervention to achieve goals, including work and organizational goals. The success of workers depends on motivation and maximizing own potentials. People accept changes conditionally, depending if it makes sense to them. Gradual changes are more successful than drastic changes (Aspinwall and Staudinger 2003). Often people who implement changes have little understanding of psychology, and, if they did, not only changes would happen more smoothly, but organizations overall would be more profitable. It is the duty of psychologists to educate organizations about the psychological principles governing companies that are made by people!

Politics, economics and society as a whole, need psychology as well. Aspinwall and Staudinger encourage the introduction of science markets, where psychologists bridge other -non psychologist- professionals and psychology. This way, solutions could be formulated together, thanks to psychologists offering their research findings. Once the solutions are found, then social engineers would carry them out. Positive Psychology has the power to optimize processes and services.

Also, it is crucial that people are utilized for their strengths for their own benefit and the benefit of society overall. When people utilize their own strengths, they become intrinsically happy and optimistic. Positive Psychology involves positive emotions, positive people’s traits and positive institutions, such as work, leadership, and culture.

Besides, more and more scholarly articles stress the importance of happiness at work and slowly but surely more organizations are realizing it and make it their goal and mission with employees. To create positive institutions, it is important not to keep secrets, following a mission and have effective conflict resolutions skills. According to Seligman, there are five traits to positive institutions: continue growing, CEO modeled, being bigger than its sums of the parts, empowering to make decisions, and being clear with the mission or purpose. Positive leaders create positive companies and institutions. Positive leaders understand the power of finding meaning in work, the power of recognizing worker’s successes all throughout and giving their power to others.

Again, positively and positive energy is contagious, because, from a quantum physics perspective, everything is energy. Therefore, people tend to gravitate towards other positive people, positive leaders, positive teams, institutions and positive cultures. The proposed model to link positive psychology and business, to make businesses successful and sustainable, is to center them around the VIA Human Strengths. Institutions or organizations are seen as micro-society and micro-communities that expand outward. Coming from strength or love, versus lack or fear, always produces far better results and outcomes. Change is about strength. All of these principles could be summarized by saying that it’s best to see, focus on and bring out the best in people. Again, these principles are true across different cultures worldwide.

Finally, Positive Psychology may be confused with self-help. It is not, as it is solely based on solid research finding, that back up any thought or hypothesis. According to Positive Psychology research, the most effective and authentic leadership shares the same values and happiness. The most rewarding work lies into sharing the same organizational culture. Positive leaders’ expectations of selves are the same, or congruent with their expectations for the other workers. Similarly, leaders who understand positive psychology are well positioned to create optimism, positive change and positive organizational culture.


Aspinwall, G., L. and Staudinger, U., M. (2003), A Psychology of Human Strengths, APA, 149-164.

Source by Dr Elena Pezzini