Location of Errors through Trial Balance

Whenever a trial balance disagrees the following steps can be taken to discover the errors:

(1) Divide the difference by two and find out if some figure equal to that (half the difference) appears in the trial balance. It is possible that such item might have been recorded on the wrong side of mal balance, causing double the difference.

(2) If the mistake is not located, the difference should be divided by 9 and if difference is evenly divisible by 9 the error be due to transportation of figures, e.g. Rs. 590 wrongly recorded as 950, the difference is (950-590) 360 and it is evenly divisible by 9.

(3) The next step is to recheck the debit and credit totals of trial balance to satisfy that trial balance has been cast correctly.

(4) If mistake remains undetected, make sure that balances or totals of all the ledger accounts have been correctly shown in the trial balance. Special care should be taken to ensure that cash or bank balances have been duly incorporated in the mal balance.

(5) The next step should be to recheck that all the closing balances from preceding year’s balance sheet were correctly carried forward and recorded in respective accounts in the ledger.

(6) Further the totaling and balancing of the ledger accounts should be redone so as to be sure that there is no mistake on that account.

(7) Check the totals of schedule of debtors and creditors and find out that the balances have been included in the list.

(8) If difference is round sum, it is advisable to check casting and carry forwards. But if the difference is odd sum the balancing should be checked minutely.

(9) Check all the figures badly written.

(10) Even then if error is not located, all the accounts should be checked thoroughly as follows:

(11) Journal will have to be checked to ascertain that total debits and credits of each entry agree.

(12) Total of subsidiary books i.e. sales book, purchases book to be checked to find that correct posting of the respective accounts has been done.

(13) Checking should be done to ensure that discount column; total of cash book have been correctly posted and entered in trial balance.

(14) If all these efforts fail to locate the errors a full rechecking of additions, posting and balancing will have to be done and it would be advisable that the work of re-checking is done by a staff different from those who had done the initial checking.



Source by Anil Kumar Gupta

Single Entry Bookkeeping Accounting System

The usual subsidiary books maintained under the double entry system of book-keeping are also maintained under the single entry system, but the postings are made from these subsidiary books of those entries which affect personal accounts. Real and nominal accounts are not maintained under this system. Since only one aspect of every transaction is usually recorded under this system, therefore, the system 1s called ‘single entry system’. It should be noted that single entry system is not any particular system of book-keeping, but rather the double entry system in an incomplete and disjointed form.

Disadvantages of single entry system

1. Since the two-fold aspect of every transaction is not recorded in the books of accounts, therefore, the arithmetical accuracy of the books of accounts cannot be ascertained by means of a trial balance.

2. It is not possible to obtain accurate information regarding the results of business operations, as under single entry system, nominal accounts relating to losses, expenses, gains and incomes have not been maintained. In the absence. of these accounts, necessary classified information required for preparing pr9fit and loss account is not available. Hence profit and loss account cannot be prepared.

3. Information relating to assets and liabilities cannot be reliable because respective accounts have not been maintained. Thus, even balance sheet cannot be prepared. Consequently, true financial position of the business cannot be ascertained.

4. In the absence of various checks, fraud is more easily committed and it is very difficult to detect.

Ascertaining profit under the single entry system

Under the single entry system of book-keeping, it is not possible to prepare a regular trading and profit & loss account, because no record is kept of the nominal accounts, therefore, the exact profit or loss for a particular period cannot be ascertained. The net profit for a particular period can be ascertained in a rough manner by comparing the financial position of the business at the commencement of the period with the financial position at the end of the period. This requires the preparation of two statements of affairs, one in the beginning and the other at the end.

Opening and closing balances of capitals can be the ascertained by preparing statement of affairs, and comparison of the capitals at the two dates will reveal either profit or loss.

Preparation of a statement of affairs

A statement of affairs (for this purpose is a document in the form of a balance sheet, showing on right hand side the amounts (estimated) of the various assets and on the left hand side the estimated amounts of liabilities. The difference of the two sides represents capital of the owner i.e. net worth. .

First a statement of affairs as at the beginning of the period should be prepared. For this, particulars of assets and liabilities as on the date should be collected with the assistance of the owner. The value of the fixed assets (plant, building, machinery, fixtures etc.) should be arrived at as follows-Proprietor will probably remember their original cost and the date of acquisitions from which (cost) appropriate amount of depreciation should be deducted, this will give ‘written down value’ of such assets which should be included in the statement of affairs. Stock taking should be done physically; lists be prepared and valuation to be done adopting cost or market price whichever is lower. Bank balance can be ascertained from the pass book or statement of account supplied by the bank. Cash can be physically counted. Debtors and creditors can be ascertained from the personal ledger.

As already stated, excess of assets over liabilities represents capital. After preparing statement of affairs, both at the beginning of the period and at the close of the period the profit or loss (for the period) is ascertained by comparing the capital at the end of the period with that at the beginning. Adjust the capital at the end by adding drawings there to and deducting there from fresh capital introduced.



Source by Anil Kumar Gupta

If You Can Dream it You Can Achieve It

I wish you many blessings is one of the most powerful gifts we can ever bestow upon anyone. A blessing possesses its own special magic; one of its purposes is to open our hearts and lead us closer to our true “inner self” or soul. Contact with our soul helps us discover and realize our goals, hopes and dreams.

The discovery of “self” (know thyself was a much quoted dictum of the early Greeks) is an exciting part of the journey we are all taking on the earth at this time, and is not one to be taken lightly. The personality or “little me” as I like to refer to the ego, is accustomed to living amidst uncertainty, confusion, doubts and fear. For us to fully reach our grand potential and to actualize our goals is not something the ego usually feels confident or comfortable about.

Fortunately, the ego is but one component of our being. How do we diminish the ego’s hold and enter the awesome realm of spirit where magic and miracles originate? One means to tap our great potential is to invoke and invite our “soul” to befriend us. Once we do this we open the door to endless possibilities. The soul’s domain is one where dreams do come true because we are not limited to third-dimensional restrictions and beliefs. To invoke our soul is to accept that we are not simply citizens of the third-dimension.

To illustrate this let me share a personal story. To surrender to our “soul” or “higher self” is a very powerful step on the path to healing and success. Several years ago I uttered a short prayer which totally changed my life. My prayer went like this: “Oh, my Soul, show me the way. Bring me miracles and magic everyday.”

From that day forward something shifted in me. My soul became my mentor and friend. It reinforced my belief, if you can dream it you can achieve it. The soul has resources we cannot begin to fathom or imagine. It has the ability to lead us to the people and circumstances to help us succeed, heal and overcome any obstacles so we may achieve peace and happiness.

“Easy for you to say, Michael,” some may say. “What would you know of hardships and pain?”

“More than you might imagine,” is my response.

It was through living in a dysfunctional abusive home that led me to invoke divine intervention. The result was an angelic visitation at the age of thirteen. Never underestimate the power of invoking our soul, our guides, and the beings of light who are always available to assist us. No problem or difficulty is too big for them to help us overcome. But there is a catch, like I state in my book Halfway to Heaven. We have to invoke and call out to the guides and angels before they can come to our rescue. The call compels the response is another theme in my book. The angel’s predictions came true. I did go to foster homes and to college and later became a Psychic, Spiritual Medium and Author.

Let me offer one more useful exercise to help in goal realization. This is the repetitive use of the spoken and written word through positive affirmations. Many spiritual and positive thinking teachers emphasize the power and importance of seeing and focusing in our mind and third eye that which we wish to manifest in our lives. Equally important is to “feel” and to “imagine” our goals as actualized. Some call this focusing and directing our intent.

Sometimes we have some inner ‘baggage’ that needs tending to before our dreams can manifest. There can be some old hurts that have not healed. For example, I wrote a book Morning Coffee With God in 2005. I sent it out to a few publishers and received the standard, thank you for your interest but your book is not what we are looking for type of response. Discouraged, I stopped sending book proposals out. In January of 2009 I felt an urge to send my ms to a friend in Arizona who is also a writer and Psychic. She emailed me back and said, “Michael, this is a wonderful book with so many interesting twists. It is humorous and very thought provoking. Your problem is that you don’t believe in it. If you don’t how can you expect a publisher too. They subconsciously pick up on your doubts about the worth of your writing. Allow yourself to fall in love with your writing and then publishers will be drawn to you. Go with godspeed. Be brave and daring!” That email made me cry. I knew that my friend was right.

The next day I bought a new printer, printed out the entire ms and reread the entire book in two days. The tears fell as I was surprised that I could write such a book. Three weeks later I received an email from a PR person at Ozark Mountain Publishing in Huntsville, AR which said,” Dolores Cannon, president and founder of Ozark Mt. would like to read your entire ms.” I had forgotten that I sent Ozark Mt. a book proposal in Sept 08.On March 29 (a day I will never forget) the president and publisher called and informed me she would like to publish my book Morning Coffee With God. Can you imagine the joy that filled me? I was being rewarded for doing the soul and inner healing work. But the work is worth the rewards.

I was also invited to be one of the featured speakers at the Ozark Mountain Publishing’s fourth annual Transformation Conference in Bentonville, AR which took place June 12/14, 2009. I did a “Messages From Your Spirit Guides” channeling and Psychic Readings and autographed and sold copies of my books Halfway to Heaven and Dawn’s Kiss. That trip was very healing and affirming and gave mea much needed boost. I dared to follow my dream in spite of fear, doubt and hesitation. I tell people that the difference between a warrior, hero and a coward is action. A warrior and hero has doubts and fears like we all do but acts in spite of them. A coward allows their fear to immobilize them.

I wish many blessings for you, dear reader, as well. Remember, if you can dream it, you can achieve it!”



Source by Mike Pax Dennis

What is a Web CMS?

Imagine that you it took you four hours to read and compose a review for you African Short Stories Book-Store website. You then had to HTML format your pages, then you had to insert your logos, pictures and adverts. Then you had to check your links in your HTML editor, and then you had to FTP upload your page. Then you would go on to review your second book. Now imagine you had 100, 200 or even 500 books to review? Obviously as an online bookstore you would prefer to concentrate on writing your book reviews rather than tinkering with web publishing technology that in itself has not only a learning curve but costs you time.

Content Management Systems, CMS in short, are designed to make a breeze of this kind of tedious and repetitive work. A web CMS is a server-side software used to manage, control and effectively develop your website. Of the three main functions of an internet business i.e. research, development and maintenance, research is the most profitable. Consequently to grow your business you need to spend the least time in both development and maintenance. CMS makes this a reality.

CMSs were first developed internally for organizations doing a lot of web publishing like online   magazines , newspapers and corporate news-letters. In 1995 CNET commercialized their in-house CMS through a company called Vignette. This sparked a market for commercial CMSs. Today you are spoilt for choice. Infact some web hosting services offer internet business optimized CMSs with their hosting services at a premium price. Starting an internet business without one can quickly put you in a disadvantage.

Basically a CMS frees up your time by automating repetitive functions on your website. For example, instead of formatting your content using HTML the CMS automatically formats it and follows your default settings. For instance all headlines are bolded in larger fonts and coloured red; text is naturally wrapped around your images and logos and navigation links automatically inserted. Just a few clicks and your page is live on the web.

But probably one of the best capabilities is the easy editing availed by CMSs. Since small errors like typos as well as changes in facts are inevitable; correcting and updating of a website can be a full time job without a CMS.

You will find an array of vendors with different kinds of Content Management Systems online. You have a choice of a packaged system or a customised one for significantly higher cost. An example of powerful internet business optimized CMS is the free Word Press used to publish blogs on the fly. You do not even need to know what HTML or FTP stands for.



Source by Mark Kimathi

The Ten K Saving on Mortgages

Would you like to save $10,000 on a mortgage? If you want to find a mortgage, then you will want to find the best sources to make this happen. Find out more here, and start making savings when buying a home!

Who wants $10,000? Well through this article, you will discover $10,000 extra in your pocket! This is a big number, and one which many people would like to hear about!

Imagine how long you have to work to make this money. So the question is how to make these savings. The truth is that there are many ways to get these savings.

When you look at many places that allow you to get mortgages, you will see a level of interest. This interest is what determines how much you pay back.

The result is immense, and makes all the difference. There are many places that offer this kind of financing, and when you take action to find what you want, you will be able to find exactly what you want.

The next step is to actually go through the various methods, and these are the tabloids, television, radio,   magazines , and even the Internet.

Researching is key, and will result in big savings. The aspect is essential, and will make all the difference. If you want to actually save $10,000, then this is a route to make it happen.

Looking online, the process is quicker, and can make all the difference. Within a few short hours, you could actually be able to go through and discover dozens of mortgages.



Source by Sarah Reddingworth

Sometimes, Home Security Means Not Playing the Hero in Emergencies

Fictional media presents us with images of the every day man turned hero. Television shows, films, books and   magazines  tell us stories of people just like us saving the day – rescuing children from burning buildings, surviving extreme situations, standing up to attackers and making it out alive, etc. We are a nation that values self-reliance and self-sufficiency above almost all else, and this is reflected largely in the stories we tell and the heroes we create.

Nevertheless, there are times when playing the hero can be a less than great idea. In fact, it can be a very bad, dangerous and even deadly notion. It is vital to know when to stand up and when to step down, when to fight back and when to wait for help.

This is especially true when it comes to home security. As much as we would like to think that we can stay in complete control of the safety and security of our homes, it is impossible to avoid the fact that there are certain things that are simply beyond our control.

The ideal is, of course, to avoid emergency situations as a whole. This is something that you can quite often accomplish with a simple bit of precaution. Install a home alarm system to take some of the pressure off of yourself in the first place and to keep your home safe. These systems serve as a first line of defense against burglars and attackers. Consider installing other devices – dead bolts, motion sensor lights, cameras, etc. – if you feel necessary, too.

Think of an emergency plan for in case something should happen. Talk to family members about what to do in incidences of fire, gas leaks, intrusions and more. Hopefully, you’ll never have to put your plans into action. It’s never a bad idea, however, to be at least somewhat prepared.

If something should go wrong, try to be as prudent and careful as possible. Sometimes, the smartest thing you can do is know that you cannot handle the situation alone. And while television heroes seemingly have no consequences, you could.

If you hear a strange noise in your house and feel confident that there is someone there, don’t feel pressured to investigate. Instead, leave along with your entire family and determine whether to call the police or ask a neighbor for help. You don’t want to surprise and confront a burglar whose reaction you cannot predict. Some people in extreme situations can do very extreme things, and an intruder with no intent of harming you could attack should he or she feel threatened or panic.

Yes, our televisions and mythologies fill us with stories of regular people turned heroes. And while these stories are nice, they are not realistic. Sometimes, the most heroic thing we can do is to know when we cannot control a situation and call the police.



Source by Levi Mortenson

How to Get Speaking Engagements

When I first started my business, I would schedule speaking engagements with any group that would listen. I would have spoken to the local garden club if they would have had me. Why? Because giving an informational talk helps you make personal connections, raises your profile and gives you an opportunity to make sales to a group whose defenses are down.

Some of you have responded that it’s all fine and dandy to recommend giving speeches, but they didn’t know the first thing about how to get bookings. So I’d like to share some tips for you to help you get your speaking ‘gigs’.

1. Start Small

My first suggestion is that if you’ve not had speaking engagements in the past, don’t start off on a grand scale. Most people assume they need to be speaking to a conference of hundreds of people. I recommend you start small, perhaps with an audience of 20 to 40 people. It’s a good size to get you comfortable whilst giving you the opportunity to test ideas and approaches.

2. Approach Networking Groups and Organizations

Your first step towards a booking is to take a look at any networking groups, ones to which you belong or groups in your area of expertise. Chances are they have monthly or quarterly meetings. Offer up your services to the meeting coordinator or organizer. When you offer to speak, make sure you explain why your topic is relevant and will be a good fit for the meeting.

Even if you’re not a member of a local networking organization, you can take steps to locate one. Check trade publication,   magazines , even the Internet. Determine who in the organization is responsible for booking speakers and contact them by telephone and offer your services.

3. Tailor Your Talk

Make sure to tailor the speech to fit the needs of your particular audience. You may need to put a new spin on your speech.

4. Establish Yourself As The Expert

Once you get your first few speaking engagements, you’ll see bookings begin to snowball. As you establish yourself in the market, people will begin to contact you rather than vice versa. Typically after a speech, someone in the audience will approach you and ask you to speak to their group. So you’re not going to have to make calls to book each and every one of your speeches. In addition to that, by giving speeches, you are establishing yourself as the expert in your field. Once you’ve become the expert, people will contact you, you’ll get more bookings and make more sales.

So take the first step towards booking your first speaking ‘gig’, starting small is fine. You’ll find your bookings and your audiences will begin to grow with each and every speaking engagement.



Source by Bernadette Doyle

Rodent Control Necessary For All Homeowners

Rodents such as mice and rats can be a serious nuisance to any homeowner. However, by using effective rodent control methods, there are ways to prevent an infestation from happening in the first place or to get rid of undesirable rodents on your property for good.

A professional pest control company can help you by providing reliable solutions for rodent control. One of the first things that would need to be done is to inspect your property, in order to check for any places that rodents may be coming from.

In urban environments, pests such as rats and mice will typically enter buildings to look for food, a place to build their nests and to get shelter from cold temperatures outside. A pest control firm can then recommend ways for you to prevent these animals from getting inside.

If you have already seen rodents inside your property, it is of utmost importance to act quickly in order to eradicate the infestation at once and to prevent it from reoccurring again in the future. As rats and mice are able to reproduce quickly, contacting a rodent control specialist immediately.

Rodent control specialists can develop an effective action plan for you, depending on the size of your property and on the severity of the infestation. They have access to professional grade equipment and products in order to get rid of mice and rats quickly and efficiently. These experts have many years of experience in rodent control and will happily assist you in getting rid of an infestation at once.



Source by Bob Rutledge

Rednose Pitbulls

Nobody knows for sure where rednose pitbulls came from or what country for sure however there are records that clearly show the information we do know is that they came in large part from Ireland. Red nose pitbulls are rare and extremely sought after because they are from something called the Old Family Red Nose strain and it is an exceptionally old strain. It is believed that the rednose pitbull was breaded only for the looks of them because of the striking red nose, of course, but also red eyes, red lips and generally red toe nails.

Rednose Pitbulls in North America

John Sullivan, a once famous boxer turned Boston police officer came to the USA to fight in a world heavyweight championship from Ireland. Once he was in the USA, he decided he’d like to stay and began to make roots. As he did this, he contacted his parents and had them ship his rednose pitbulls over from Ireland. This was the beginning of a business for John because years later, his expertise and general knowledge of the old family rednose pitbulls. He is even found name and noted in pit bull history and if you are a lover of the rednose pitbulls already, his name is probably strikingly familiar to you. It was in these times that this ‘old family’ dog was introduced to North America and the strain is completely established in the United States now as well.

Pitbulls Fighting for Rights

The above being said, pitbulls can be a very nice pet to have as long as you teach them early not to be aggressive and the in all likelihood, if you are looking for a pitbull you know some things about their behavior patterns. It would be wise to seek the advice of a professional perhaps where you buy the dog from to raise a well-mannered dog you can trust and not be afraid of however, keep in mind that these dogs have gone from never doing a thing wrong in the way of aggression to chewing up a three year old child who walked past the fence in their yard. Choose your pets carefully and remember two pitbulls fighting is more dangerous than one.

Despite myths you might hear, the rednose pitbulls are no more aggressive or less than any other type of pitbull, in fact they all have good and bad about them like anything in life. However, because of so much cross breeding since those times, rednose pitbulls show up in different breeds of pitbulls all the time.



Source by Trevor Albinez

Understanding the Barks of Your Dog

The way that a dog barks has been developed over the years by our training processes, we have adapted the dog to bark to help us out, and whether it is to round the sheep up on the farm or to deter intruders on our property, the dog’s bark is for a reason.

Proper training in dogs is important in many ways. It is important for us to be able to understand what a dog is trying to tell us. The important thing to do when a dog barks is to find out exactly why it is barking, not to try to keep him quiet by rewarding him with treats.

Some dogs bark very frequently as a way of trying to get your attention. If, however, you do just give your dog treats when he barks, this will just encourage him to bark more often.

Try not to encourage your dogs barking with rewards. If you wait until he is quiet before you give him a reward this will make him aware that quietness is the correct way of getting the attention he wants.

Dogs have been known to be so territorial that they will even bark at somebody that appears to be approaching you, even if they are on opposing sides of the road. You could try to distract your dog when they are barking. Once they have stopped give them a reward, this sends another positive message to the dog that not barking all the time is the proper thing to do.

If you are a dog owner you will know that taking the time to train your dog properly is a must. With the proper training you will always be able to tell what your dog is trying to tell you. This surely is a must win situation for the both of you. He does not have to bark all the time to get your attention and you have a peaceful life instead of the constant barking that could drive you mad.



Source by Michael Framball